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热烈祝贺Engineered Science期刊第6期论文正式上线
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Volume 6, June 2019

1.Thermo-Responsiveand Shape-Adaptive Hydrogel Actuators from Fundamentals to Applications

Yanxian Zhang, Shaowen Xie, Dong Zhang, Baiping Ren, Yonglan Liu, Li Tang, Qiang Chen, Jintao Yang, Jiang Wu*, Jianxin Tang*, and Jie Zheng*

Eng.Sci., 2019, 6: 1-11.

DOI:10.30919/es8d788

Abstract

Shapeadaptable hydrogel actuators, capablefor changing their shapes in response tosingle or multiple thermo/other external stimulus, are considered as newemergingsmart materials for a broad range of fundamental/industrial researchand applications. This review mainly focuses on the recent progress(particularly over the past 5 years) on such thermo-responsive hydrogelactuators. Recent fundamental advances and engineering applications inmaterialsdesign/synthesis/characterization, distinct actuation mechanisms, andintriguing examples of these hydrogel actuators of single or dual stimuliareselectively presented. Specific or general design principles for thermo-inducedhydrogel actuators are also provided to better illustrate thestructure-property relationship. In the end, we offer some personalperspectives on currentmajor challenges and future research directions in thispromising field. Overall, this review discusses current status, progress, andchallenges of hydrogel actuators, and hopefully willmotivate researchers fromdifferent fields to explore all the potentials of hydrogel actuators.

2.Nanoparticles TargetingHepatic Stellate Cells for the Treatment of Liver Fibrosis

Qiaobin Hu, Ji-Young Lee and Yangchao Luo*

Eng.Sci., 2019, 6: 12-21.

DOI:10.30919/es8d507

Abstract

Liverfibrosis is ascarring process that can progress to cirrhosis, the primary cause forhepatocellularcarcinoma. Although various anti-fibrotic agents have been explored for liverfibrosis treatment, their clinical applications have been limited due toinsufficient delivery of the agents to target cells and toxicity. Hepaticstellate cells (HSC) play key roles in the development of liver fibrosisbecause they produce extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagens, whenactivated upon liver injury. Therefore, surface engineering of organicnanoparticles (such as liposomes, polymeric, and lipid nanoparticles) withligands specific to the over-expressed receptors secreted by activated HSCduring hepatic fibrogenesis has been exploited in the last decade to developeffective approaches to reverse liver fibrosis. Passive targeting has also beenexplored as a potential strategy to deliver anti-fibrotic agents to activatedHSC through systemic administration of non-ligand nanoparticles, including bothorganic (polymeric and lipid) and inorganic (mesoporous silica, cerium oxideand silver) nanoparticles. This review focuses on the most recent literaturesconcerning different types of nanoparticles for liver fibrosis treatment viaHSC-targeting delivery of various anti-fibrotic agents by the two strategiesaforementioned, with special emphasis on their therapeutic mechanisms andbiological efficacies at both cellular and the whole body levels.

3. Pulsed laser deposition of NiSe2film on carbon nanotubes for high-performance supercapacitor

Rongrong Nie, Qunlong Wang, Peng Sun, Ruijing Wang, Qin Yuan, and Xuefeng Wang*

Eng.Sci., 2019, 6: 22-29.

DOI:10.30919/es8d668

Abstract

AmorphousNiSe2 was deposited on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) networks by thepulsed laser deposition method forming the CC@CNT@NiSe2 composites.The CC@CNT@NiSe2 electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of696 F g?1 at 2 A g?1 and the specific capacitanceretention of 74 % in the long life test. To evaluate the practicality of ourelectrode, we assembled the CC@CNTs@NiSe2//CC@CNTs asymmetricsupercapacitor using CC@CNTs@NiSe2 as positive electrode and CC@CNTsas the negative electrode, which shows an energy density of 11.9 Wh kg?1at a power density of 242 W kg?1. This work highlights theadvantageous electrochemical performance of NiSe2 film on CNTs, inwhich the highly conductive CNTs provide plentful electronic conductionchannels and the NiSe2 film exposures more active sites.

4.Microwave Orbital Angular Momentum Beam GenerationBased on Circularly Polarized Metasurface Antenna Array

Jianchun Xu, Yanan Hao, Ke Bi,* Ru Zhang, Shanguo Huang* and Ji Zhou

Eng.Sci., 2019, 6: 30-35.

DOI:10.30919/es8d748

Abstract

A V-shaped metasurfacestructure is applied in the design of circularly polarized antenna forexcellent polarization performance. By means of structural parameteroptimization, a 0.34 dB axial ratio is obtained. This proposed antenna has acompact dimension of 0.272λ0 × 0.272λ0× 0.02λ0, which is beneficial for the practial applications.Several proposed metasurface antennas are fabriated and measured to verify therationality of design. The simulated and measured results of the OAM beams welldemonstrate the capability of this circularly polarized metasurface antennaarray in generating OAM beam.

5.Fabrication and Characterization of Rose BengalSensitized Binary TiO2-ZrO2 Oxides Photo-electrode BasedDye-sensitized Solar Cell

M. A. Waghmare, N. I. Beedri, A. U. Ubale* and H. M. Pathan

Eng.Sci., 2019, 6: 36-43.

DOI:10.30919/es8d145

Abstract

Titaniumoxide (TiO2) electrode has been the most commonly usedphoto-electrode for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Several researchgroups have already reported that only TiO2 layer is not yet idealfor electron transfer in the absence of space charge layer and alsodemonstrated the procedures for coating nanocrystalline semiconducting oxidefilms with a thin overcoat of a different semiconducting oxide with a higherconduction band energy level (EC). Zirconium oxide (ZrO2)is a suitable material for such overcoat because of its higher EC.The binary TiO2–ZrO2 oxide photo-electrodes were preparedby doctor blading technique. The electrodes were annealed at 450 °Cand then sensitized by Rose Bengal (RB) dye. The DSSC fabricated by binary TiO2-ZrO2photo-electrode showed improved solar energy conversion efficiency than that offabricated only by pure component of TiO2.

6.Remarkably Enhanced CO2Uptake and Uranium Extraction by Functionalization of Cyano-bearing ConjugatedPorous Polycarbazoles

Anwang Dong, Yaqi Zhu, Mengyao Ren, Xiaoyu Sun, Vignesh Murugadoss, Yihui Yuan, Jun Wen, Xiaolin Wang, Qi Chen*, ZhanhuGuo* and Ning Wang*

Eng. Sci., 2019,6: 44-52.

DOI: 10.30919/es8d688

Abstract

Cyano-bearing conjugatedpolycarbazoles PHN-1 and PHN-2 were efficiently prepared in high yields fromcorresponding monomers with para- and meta-configuration by oxidative couplingpolymerization at room temperature, respectively. PHN-1 with para-configurationexhibits higher porosity than meta-configuration counterpart PHN-2. Cyanogroups in the polymers were further converted to conjugated polycarbazolescontaining tetrazole (PHN-1-TZ and PHN-2-TZ) or amidoxime groups (PHN-1-AO andPHN-2-AO) after treatment with NaN3/NH4Cl3 andhydroxylamine aqueous solution, respectively. Up to 55.0% enhancement of CO2uptake at 298 K and 1.0 bar found for PHN-2-TZ (4.93 wt%) afterpost-modification from PHN-2 (3.18 wt%) is ascribed to tetrazole groups withbasic feature and acidic hydrogen, which show high affinities to CO2not only by the Lewis acid–Lewis base and local-dipole-quadrupole interactionsbut also through the hydrogen bonding with oxygen atoms of CO2. Inthe real seawater with excess uranium (8.02 ppm), a maximum uranium extractionuptake of 119.4 mg g-1 for PHN-1-AO greatly higher than ~10 mg g-1for the PHN-1 (about) at room temperature is due to the strong chelatinginteraction between the amidoxime groups and uranium.

7. Attenuation of the Aggregation and Neurotoxicityof Amyloid Peptides with Neurotransmitter-Functionalized Ultra-Small-Sized GoldNanoparticles

Yueling Xu, Yiliang Li, Lin Wei, Hua Liu, Juhui Qiu and Lehui Xiao

Eng.Sci., 2019, 6: 53-63.

DOI:10.30919/es8d778

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is closely associatedwith the self-aggregation of beta-amyloid peptides (Aβ). The neuron cytotoxicity of assembled Aβ fibrils has been extensively studied. In this work,ultra-small-sized gold nanoparticles (USGNPs, with diameter of ~4 nm) aresynthesized and conjugated with neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and itssynthetic precursors (L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) and L-tyrosine (L-Tyr)). It isfound that the fibrillation process of Aβcan be efficiently inhibited by these functionalized USGNPs, which is essentiallyascribed to the screened growth points on the short seeds after being anchoredby functionalized USGNPs as well as the disturbing of the peptide foldingprocess in solutionas revealed by the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and circular dichroism(CD) spectroscopic measurements. More interestingly, the neuron cells (PC12 as a model) exhibitnoticeably improved viability (~90%) when treated with functionalized USGNPs incontrast to the control treated with Aβgrowth solution alone (~70%). Because of the superior inhibition effect on theAβ fibrillation as well as theremarkable cell protection effect, these functionalized USGNPs would affordinsight information for the rational design of efficient strategy for ADtreatment.

8. Cobalt-Doping Enhancing Electrochemical Performance of Silicon/CarbonNanocomposite as Highly Efficient Anode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries

Muhammad Idrees?, Liqiang Liu?, Saima Batool, Hebin Luo, Jin Liang, Benbin Xu, Steven Wang and Jie Kong*

Eng.Sci., 2019, 6: 64-76.

DOI:10.30919/es8d798

Abstract

Sustainable, renewable and environmentalfriendly anode materials are key factors to energystorage devices. We report a novel metal-doping strategy to enhance electrochemicalperformance of silicon/carbon nanocomposite (Co-Si/C)anodevia pyrolysis of cobalt-coordinatedpoly(dimethylsilyene)diacetylenes. The Co-Si/C nanocompositeanodes exhibitedpromising superior cyclic properties and kept a high discharge capacity ofabout 1105 mAh g-1. They maintaineda specific capacity of 905 mAh g-1 after 100cycles at 100 mA g-1with an average coulombic efficiency of 81.9% and a high specific capacityof 540 mAh g-1 after 1000cycles at 500 mA g-1 withan average coulombic efficiency of 99%.TheCo-Si/C anode composite preserved the structural integrity after theelectrochemical tests, demonstrating the potential of efficient and stableelectrochemical performance.

9. Fabrication of Thermally StableGraphite-Based Poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) Composite with ImpressiveAntimicrobial Properties

Nasrullah Shah*, Sobia Aslam, MazharUl-Islam, Muhammad Balal Arain, Touseef Rehan, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad WajidUllah* and Guang Yang*

Eng.Sci., 2019, 6: 77-85.

DOI:10.30919/es8d758

Abstract

Thecurrent study reports the synthesis of graphite-based poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylicacid) composite (GPC) sheets viasol-gel/casting method. Theeffect of different amounts of graphite (0.25 to 40 wt%) on variouscharacteristics of the prepared GPC was studied through scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-raydiffraction analysis (XRD), and differential thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA/DTG). The XRD and FTIR analyses confirmed the existence of characteristicpeaks of graphite while SEM micrographs showed its uniform distribution inpolymer matrix. TGA curves revealed enhancement of thermal stability of GPCwith increasing graphite content. The swelling ratio and water holding capacityanalyses revealed a reduced hydrophilic behavior of GPC with increasinggraphite content. The fabricated GPC demonstrated impressive antimicrobialproperties against Escherichia coli.The structural, physico-chemical, thermal, and biological features ofas-prepared GPC show their potential biomedical applications.

10. Hierarchical Assembly of CuONano-Dandelions on 3-D Printed Template

Md Didarul Islam, Hamad Al Yassi, Mengyao Dong, Daniel S. Choi, Ilwoo Seok, Chuntai Liu, Zhanhu Guo and Jong Eun Ryu*

Eng.Sci., 2019, 6: 86-89.

DOI:10.30919/es8d503

Abstract

We report a two-phase chemical synthesis ofvarious copper (Cu) nanostructures throughout complex 3-dimensional (3-D)printed substrates. We present dandelion-like CuO nano-rods grown on a 3-Dmodel. 1 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm bars are cross-stacked to form a cubic log-pilestructure. Ni thin-film was electrolessly deposited, and subsequently Cu layerwas electroplated on the 3-D log-pile structure. In order to grownanostructures, the Cu layer was reacted with an alkali solution (NH4OH).The surface morphology and chemistry were characterized by field emissionscanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX).

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